This is a one-of-a-kind reference for anyone with a serious interest in mathematics. Edited by Timothy Gowers, a recipient of the Fields Medal, it presents nearly two hundred entries, written especially for this book by some of the world''s leading mathematicians, that introduce basic mathematical tools and vocabulary; trace the development of modern mathematics; explain essential terms and concepts; examine core ideas in major areas of mathematics; describe the achievements of scores of famous mathematicians; explore the impact of mathematics on other disciplines such as biology, finance, and music--and much, much more. Unparalleled in its depth of coverage, The Princeton Companion to Mathematics surveys the most active and exciting branches of pure mathematics. Accessible in style, this is an indispensable resource for undergraduate and graduate students in mathematics as well as for researchers and scholars seeking to understand areas outside their specialties. Features nearly 200 entries, organized thematically and written by an international team of distinguished contributors Presents major ideas and branches of pure mathematics in a clear, accessible style Defines and explains important mathematical concepts, methods, theorems, and open problems Introduces the language of mathematics and the goals of mathematical research Covers number theory, algebra, analysis, geometry, logic, probability, and more Traces the history and development of modern mathematics Profiles more than ninety-five mathematicians who influenced those working today Explores the influence of mathematics on other disciplines Includes bibliographies, cross-references, and a comprehensive index Contributors incude: Graham Allan, Noga Alon, George Andrews, Tom Archibald, Sir Michael Atiyah, David Aubin, Joan Bagaria, Keith Ball, June Barrow-Green, Alan Beardon, David D. Ben-Zvi, Vitaly Bergelson, Nicholas Bingham, Béla Bollobás, Henk Bos, Bodil Branner, Martin R. Bridson, John P. Burgess, Kevin Buzzard, Peter J. Cameron, Jean-Luc Chabert, Eugenia Cheng, Clifford C. Cocks, Alain Connes, Leo Corry, Wolfgang Coy, Tony Crilly, Serafina Cuomo, Mihalis Dafermos, Partha Dasgupta, Ingrid Daubechies, Joseph W. Dauben, John W. Dawson Jr., Francois de Gandt, Persi Diaconis, Jordan S. Ellenberg, Lawrence C. Evans, Florence Fasanelli, Anita Burdman Feferman, Solomon Feferman, Charles Fefferman, Della Fenster, José Ferreirós, David Fisher, Terry Gannon, A. Gardiner, Charles C. Gillispie, Oded Goldreich, Catherine Goldstein, Fernando Q. Gouvêa, Timothy Gowers, Andrew Granville, Ivor Grattan-Guinness, Jeremy Gray, Ben Green, Ian Grojnowski, Niccolò Guicciardini, Michael Harris, Ulf Hashagen, Nigel Higson, Andrew Hodges, F. E. A. Johnson, Mark Joshi, Kiran S. Kedlaya, Frank Kelly, Sergiu Klainerman, Jon Kleinberg, Israel Kleiner, Jacek Klinowski, Eberhard Knobloch, János Kollár, T. W. Körner, Michael Krivelevich, Peter D. Lax, Imre Leader, Jean-François Le Gall, W. B. R. Lickorish, Martin W. Liebeck, Jesper Lützen, Des MacHale, Alan L. Mackay, Shahn Majid, Lech Maligranda, David Marker, Jean Mawhin, Barry Mazur, Dusa McDuff, Colin McLarty, Bojan Mohar, Peter M. Neumann, Catherine Nolan, James Norris, Brian Osserman, Richard S. Palais, Marco Panza, Karen Hunger Parshall, Gabriel P. Paternain, Jeanne Peiffer, Carl Pomerance, Helmut Pulte, Bruce Reed, Michael C. Reed, Adrian Rice, Eleanor Robson, Igor Rodnianski, John Roe, Mark Ronan, Edward Sandifer, Tilman Sauer, Norbert Schappacher, Andrzej Schinzel, Erhard Scholz, Reinhard Siegmund-Schultze, Gordon Slade, David J. Spiegelhalter, Jacqueline Stedall, Arild Stubhaug, Madhu Sudan, Terence Tao, Jamie Tappenden, C. H. Taubes, Rüdiger Thiele, Burt Totaro, Lloyd N. Trefethen, Dirk van Dalen, Richard Weber, Dominic Welsh, Avi Wigderson, Herbert Wilf, David Wilkins, B. Yandell, Eric Zaslow, Doron Zeilberger
This textbook offers a high-level introduction to multi-variable differential calculus. Differential forms are introduced incrementally in the narrative, eventually leading to a unified treatment of Green's, Stokes' and Gauss' theorems. Furthermore, the presentation offers a natural route to differential geometry. Contents: Calculus of Vector Functions Tangent Spaces and 1-forms Line Integrals Differential Calculus of Mappings Applications of Differential Calculus Double and Triple Integrals Wedge Products and Exterior Derivatives Integration of Forms Stokes' Theorem and Applications
This book provides a rigorous treatment of multivariable differential and integral calculus. Implicit function theorem and the inverse function theorem based on total derivatives is explained along with the results and the connection to solving systems of equations. There is an extensive treatment of extrema, including constrained extrema and Lagrange multipliers, covering both first order necessary conditions and second order sufficient conditions. The material on Riemann integration in n dimensions, being delicate by its very nature, is discussed in detail. Differential forms and the general Stokes' Theorem are expounded in the last chapter.With a focus on clarity rather than brevity, this text gives clear motivation, definitions and examples with transparent proofs. Much of the material included is published for the first time in textbook form, for example Schwarz' Theorem in Chapter 2 and double sequences and sufficient conditions for constrained extrema in Chapter 4. A wide selection of problems, ranging from simple to more challenging, are included with carefully formed solutions.Ideal as a classroom text or a self study resource for students, this book will appeal to higher level undergraduates in Mathematics.
The first of three volumes on partial differential equations, this one introduces basic examples arising in continuum mechanics, electromagnetism, complex analysis and other areas, and develops a number of tools for their solution, in particular Fourier analysis, distribution theory, and Sobolev spaces. These tools are then applied to the treatment of basic problems in linear PDE, including the Laplace equation, heat equation, and wave equation, as well as more general elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic equations.The book is targeted at graduate students in mathematics and at professional mathematicians with an interest in partial differential equations, mathematical physics, differential geometry, harmonic analysis, and complex analysis.
This textbook is for the standard, one-semester, junior-senior course that often goes by the title "Elementary Partial Differential Equations" or "Boundary Value Problems;' The audience usually consists of stu dents in mathematics, engineering, and the physical sciences. The topics include derivations of some of the standard equations of mathemati cal physics (including the heat equation, the· wave equation, and the Laplace's equation) and methods for solving those equations on bounded and unbounded domains. Methods include eigenfunction expansions or separation of variables, and methods based on Fourier and Laplace transforms. Prerequisites include calculus and a post-calculus differential equations course. There are several excellent texts for this course, so one can legitimately ask why one would wish to write another. A survey of the content of the existing titles shows that their scope is broad and the analysis detailed; and they often exceed five hundred pages in length. These books gen erally have enough material for two, three, or even four semesters. Yet, many undergraduate courses are one-semester courses. The author has often felt that students become a little uncomfortable when an instructor jumps around in a long volume searching for the right topics, or only par tially covers some topics; but they are secure in completely mastering a short, well-defined introduction. This text was written to proVide a brief, one-semester introduction to partial differential equations.
This book develops a new theory of multi-parameter singular integrals associated with Carnot-Carathéodory balls. Brian Street first details the classical theory of Calderón-Zygmund singular integrals and applications to linear partial differential equations. He then outlines the theory of multi-parameter Carnot-Carathéodory geometry, where the main tool is a quantitative version of the classical theorem of Frobenius. Street then gives several examples of multi-parameter singular integrals arising naturally in various problems. The final chapter of the book develops a general theory of singular integrals that generalizes and unifies these examples. This is one of the first general theories of multi-parameter singular integrals that goes beyond the product theory of singular integrals and their analogs. Multi-parameter Singular Integrals will interest graduate students and researchers working in singular integrals and related fields.
This book is devoted to integration, one of the two main operations in calculus. In Part 1, the definition of the integral of a one-variable function is different (not essentially, but rather methodically) from traditional definitions of Riemann or Lebesgue integrals. Such an approach allows us, on the one hand, to quickly develop the practical skills of integration as well as, on the other hand, in Part 2, to pass naturally to the more general Lebesgue integral. Based on the latter, in Part 2, the author develops a theory of integration for functions of several variables. In Part 3, within the same methodological scheme, the author presents the elements of theory of integration in an abstract space equipped with a measure; we cannot do without this in functional analysis, probability theory, etc. The majority of chapters are complemented with problems, mostly of the theoretical type. The book is mainly devoted to students of mathematics and related specialities. However, Part 1 can be successfully used by any student as a simple introduction to integration calculus.
In 1903 Fredholm published his famous paper on integral equations. Since then linear integral operators have become an important tool in many areas, including the theory of Fourier series and Fourier integrals, approximation theory and summability theory, and the theory of integral and differential equations. As regards the latter, applications were soon extended beyond linear operators. In approximation theory, however, applications were limited to linear operators mainly by the fact that the notion of singularity of an integral operator was closely connected with its linearity. This book represents the first attempt at a comprehensive treatment of approximation theory by means of nonlinear integral operators in function spaces. In particular, the fundamental notions of approximate identity for kernels of nonlinear operators and a general concept of modulus of continuity are developed in order to obtain consistent approximation results. Applications to nonlinear summability, nonlinear integral equations and nonlinear sampling theory are given. In particular, the study of nonlinear sampling operators is important since the results permit the reconstruction of several classes of signals. In a wider context, the material of this book represents a starting point for new areas of research in nonlinear analysis. For this reason the text is written in a style accessible not only to researchers but to advanced students as well.
Differential and integral equations involve important mathematical techniques, and as such will be encountered by mathematicians, and physical and social scientists, in their undergraduate courses. This text provides a clear, comprehensive guide to first- and second-order ordinary and partial differential equations, whilst introducing important and useful basic material on integral equations. Readers will encounter detailed discussion of the wave, heat and Laplaceequations, of Green's functions and their application to the Sturm-Liouville equation, and how to use series solutions, transform methods and phase-plane analysis. The calculus of variations will take them further into the world of applied analysis.Providing a wealth of techniques, but yet satisfying the needs of the pure mathematician, and with numerous carefully worked examples and exercises, the text is ideal for any undergraduate with basic calculus to gain a thorough grounding in 'analysis for applications'.
The theory of Vector Optimization is developed by a systematic usage of infimum and supremum. In order to get existence and appropriate properties of the infimum, the image space of the vector optimization problem is embedded into a larger space, which is a subset of the power set, in fact, the space of self-infimal sets. Based on this idea we establish solution concepts, existence and duality results and algorithms for the linear case. The main advantage of this approach is the high degree of analogy to corresponding results of Scalar Optimization. The concepts and results are used to explain and to improve practically relevant algorithms for linear vector optimization problems.
We always come cross several decision-making problems in our daily life. Such problems are always conflicting in which many different view points should be satisfied. In politics, business, industrial systems, management science, networks, etc. one often encounters such kind of problems. The most important and difficult part in such problems is the conflict between various objectives and goals. In these problems, one has to find the minimum(or maximum) for several objective functions. Such problems are called vector optimization problems (VOP),multi-criteria optimization problems or multi-objective optimization problems. This volume deals with several different topics / aspects of vector optimization theory ranging from the very beginning to the most recent one. It contains fourteen chapters written by different experts in the field of vector optimization.
This is a brief introduction to some geometrical topics including topological spaces, the metric tensor, Euclidean space, manifolds, tensors, r-forms, the orientation of a manifold and the Hodge star operator. It provides the reader who is approaching the subject for the first time with a deeper understanding of the geometrical properties of vectors and covectors. The material prepares the reader for discussions on basic concepts such as the differential of a function as a covector, metric dual, inner product, wedge product and cross product.J M Domingos received his D Phil from the University of Oxford and has now retired from the post of Professor of Physics at the University of Coimbra, Portugal.
This book presents the reader with new operators and matrices that arise in the area of matrix calculus. The properties of these mathematical concepts are investigated and linked with zero-one matrices such as the commutation matrix. Elimination and duplication matrices are revisited and partitioned into submatrices. Studying the properties of these submatrices facilitates achieving new results for the original matrices themselves. Different concepts of matrix derivatives are presented and transformation principles linking these concepts are obtained. One of these concepts is used to derive new matrix calculus results, some involving the new operators and others the derivatives of the operators themselves. The last chapter contains applications of matrix calculus, including optimization, differentiation of log-likelihood functions, iterative interpretations of maximum likelihood estimators, and a Lagrangian multiplier test for endogeneity.