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United States History

Customized guides to research for specific HIS courses

Oh Patriotism! where is thy indignation? OH SHAME WHERE IS THY BLUSH?

[R] Reference Sources

=> American National Biography. 26 vols. Garraty, John A. and American Council of Learned Societies.
New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.  CT213 .A68 1998 Reference Fl. 1

Sample: "American Colonization Society and the Founding of Liberia." In Encyclopedia of Race and Racism,
   edited by Patrick L. Mason. 2nd ed. Gale, 2013.

Sample: Matibag, Eugenio. "Haitian Revolution." In Encyclopedia of Emancipation and Abolition in the Transatlantic World,
   edited by Junius Rodriguez. Routledge, 2007.

Library of Congress 

Helper, Hinton Rowan. The Impending Crisis of the South: How to Meet It. New York, A.B. Burdick, 1859.

Abolition, Anti-Slavery Movements, and the Rise of the Sectional Controversy

[P] Founders Online (National Archives and Records Administration) 
     Searchable by author, recipient, and time period

African Colonization (is sending free black people to Africa a good idea?)

American Colonization Society

Annual Report of the ACS (1818-1910)

Garrison, W. Lloyd. Thoughts on African Colonization: or an Impartial Exhibition of the Doctrines,
     Principles and Purposes of the American Colonization Society
. Boston: Garrison and Knapp, 1832.

Abolitionist William L. Garrison's attack on colonization 

African Colonization Pamphlets (from the James Birney Collection, Johns Hopkins University)

     Arranged by date, oldest to newest

"Letters to the American Colonization Society." (6 parts). In The Journal of Negro History.

Includes many letters from free persons of color

Abolitionist Agitation (should state/national governments and/or mobs limit abolitionist agitation)

The Liberator Liberator, vol. 1, no. 1

Anti-abolitionist pamphlets:

A Candid Appeal to the Citizens (1834)

The South Vindicated (1836)

"Incendiary" Abolitionist Publications and Postal Service (John Calhoun, 24th Congress, 1st Session, 1836)

Slavery and the Church (sources from The Hathi Trust)

Haines-Butt, Martha. Antifanaticism: A Tale of the South. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1853.

A Southern Novelist's reply to Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin

The Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 (should northerners be obligated to help recapture runaways?)

Text of the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 (facsimile)

Fugitive Slaves; Fugitive Slave Law  (pamphlets from the James Birney Collection, Johns Hopkins University)

Debates in the Congress

Search in the Congressional Globe

Pamphlets of Congressional speeches

Browse the Congressional Globe-Abolition and Slavery; Abolition petitions

Browse the Congressional Globe-Fugitive Slave Law

Browse the Congressional Globe-The Slavery Question; Slavery in the Territories, etc.

Editorial reactions (use the Slavery and Anti-Slavery Archive below or under databases)

Sermons on the Fugitive Slave Law

Fugitive Slaves (includes enforcement of the "Fugitive Slave Act")

John Brown (his raid on Harper’s Ferry; was he a hero or terrorist?)

Secession-Era Editorials Project

Address of John Brown to the Virginia Court

Raid on Harper's Ferry Pamphlets (from the James Birney Collection, Johns Hopkins University)
Slavery or Freedom in Kansas? (from the James Birney Collection, Johns Hopkins University)

Slavery or Freedom in Kansas? (Sources from Burke Library)

John Brown and Raid at Harper's Ferry (Sources from Burke Library)

Violence in Kansas-Missouri over slavery (Sources from Burke Library)
     See also Kansas-Nebraska Act  and "Bleeding Kansas"

Abolition, Antislavery Publications

Boston Public Library

Abolitionist Petition and Mailing Campaign

[S] Scholarly Journal Articles (using the JSTOR database)

Sample searches:

     defense of slavery

     African colonization

     (Church or Bible or sermon or scripture) in the journal Slavery & Abolition

Sample Results:

Allen, Jeffrey Brooke. "Were Southern White Critics of Slavery Racists? Kentucky and the Upper
   South, 1791-1824
." The Journal of Southern History 44, no. 2 (1978): 169-190.

Allen, Jody L. “Thomas Dew and the Rise of Proslavery Ideology at William & Mary.”
   Slavery & Abolition
39, no. 2 (June 2018): 267–79.

Brown, David. "Attacking Slavery from Within: The Making of "The Impending Crisis of the South."
   The Journal of Southern History 70, no. 3 (2004): 541-76.

Earle, Jonathan. "The Making of the North's 'Stark-Mad Abolitionists': Anti-Slavery Conversion in the
   United States, 1824-54." Slavery and Abolition 25, no. 3 (2004): 59-75.

Epps, Archie C. “The Christian Doctrine of Slavery: A Theological Analysis.”
   The Journal of Negro History
46, no. 4 (1961): 243–49.

Perkins, Howard C. "The Defense of Slavery in the Northern Press on the Eve of the Civil War."
   The Journal of Southern History 9, no. 4 (1943): 501-31.

Smith, John David. "A Different View of Slavery: Black Historians Attack the Proslavery Argument, 1890-1920."
   The Journal of Negro History 65, no. 4 (1980): 298-311.

Wyatt-Brown, Bertram. "The Abolitionists' Postal Campaign of 1835." The Journal of Negro History 50, no. 4 (1965): 227-38.

Wyly-Jones, Susan. "The 1835 Anti-abolition Meetings in the South: a New Look at the Controversy over the Abolition Postal
." Civil War History 47, no. 4 (2001): 289-310.

Sample JSTOR search

"American Colonization Society"

Sources using Library of Congress Subject Heading System [click the links for samples]

Dred Scott

Wilmot Proviso

Kansas-Nebraska Act

Bleeding Kansas

Amistad case

+ + +


Abolitionists [also search names of individual abolitionists, William Lloyd Garrison, for ex.]

Writings of Frederick Douglass

Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass: An American Slave. Boston : Anti-slavery Office, 1849.

Free Soil Party

Pro-slavery rhetoric 

see also: slavery justification

   American Colonization Society

   Colonization of West Africa (Liberia)

Arguments Justifying Slavery

Free Persons of Color

Slave Labor

Foner, Philip S, and Herbert Shapiro. Northern Labor and Antislavery: A Documentary History. Greenwood Press, 1994.

Slavery in Southern States   Another form:  Slavery and [name of state] 

     Slavery Massachusetts

     Slavery Louisiana

Plantation Life, Social Conditions

Political debates over slavery

Fugitive Slaves

Fugitive Slave Law (1850)


   Campbell, Stanley W. Slave Catchers: Enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Law, 1850-1860.
      University of North Carolina Press, 1970.

   Follett, Richard J. The Sugar Masters: Planters and Slaves in Louisiana's Cane World, 1820-1860.
      Louisiana State University Press, 2005.

   Grimsted, David. American Mobbing, 1828-1861: Toward Civil War. Oxford University Press, 1998.

       The issue of slavery provoked riots in both the North and the South

   Harrold, Stanley. Border War: Fighting Over Slavery Before the Civil War. University of North Carolina Press, 2010.  

   Hudson, Larry E. To Have and to Hold: Slave Work and Family Life in Antebellum South Carolina.
      University of Georgia Press, 1997.

   Lightner, David L. Slavery and the Commerce Power: How the Struggle against the Interstate Slave Trade
      Led to the Civil War. Yale University Press, 2006

   Lubet, Steven. Fugitive Justice: Runaways, Rescuers, and Slavery on Trial. Harvard University Press, 2010.

   Middleton, Stephen. The Black Laws: Race and the Legal Process in Early Ohio. Ohio University Press, 2005.

   Rael, Patrick. Eighty-eight Years: The Long Death of Slavery in the United States, 1777-1865. University of
      Georgia Press, 2015.

See esp. chapters 5-6 discussing sectional conflicts and anti-slavery violence

Sample results